Differences in these measurements probably relate to different baseline measurements and, perhaps much more importantly, also the internal aspect of the cranial base, which remains stable from early childhood onwards . The intraoccipital synchondrosis is completely ossified by 5 weeks of postnatal development, whereas the intrasphenoid and spheno-occipital synchondrosis retain a small amount of cartilage into adulthood. Fusion begins superiorly and progresses inferiorly, and also starts at the inner surface of the skull base proceeding towards the ectocranial surface 2 . Premature fusion of the SOS has been associated with midface hypoplasia The spheno-occipital synchondrosis seems to have a more The spheno-occipital synchondrosis is an important link between the development of the cranial vault and that of the facial skeleton [1, 16, 26]. While the times of union of epiphyses to primary centers of the skeleton have been widely studied, a paucity of information is available concerning the normal closure of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis. Conversely, if θ is large, the mandible is relatively There are two well-known ontogenic models regarding cranial base flexion. Information on the cartilaginous joint in the cranial base is limited, probably as a result of general acceptance that basal synchondroses are the same as the epiphyseal plates of the long bones . The spheno-ethmoidal synchondrosis terminates at 6 years of age [15, 19] and the intersphenoid synchondrosis ossifies immediately before birth . This angle has a large individual variation, with a 5° standard deviation, and is markedly decreased in value from birth until the first year. Large areas of the cranial base remain cartilaginous throughout early fetal life, while many cartilages persist into the third trimester and postnatal life in humans . The more cells there are, the greater the growth rate is . Thus, the cranial base angle is similar to that in later prenatal and postnatal stages, suggesting that distinctively human patterns develop early in the embryonic period . ", "Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. There is no reason why growth in the zones on either side of the growth center should be the same. Current knowledge concerning closure of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis is inadequate for age estimation purposes in that of the few detailed studies conducted, these demonstrate considerable variation concerning the age at which the synchondrosis commences and completes fusion, thus creating uncertainty for forensic investigators who may use this developmental feature for age … A search of Medline Ovid from 1950 identified 258 papers on synchondrosis, consisting of 188 papers written in English and 70 in other languages, such as German, French, Japanese, Italian, Polish, Czech and Russian. The age of closure of skull base synchondroses has never been analyzed in a homogenous population of children with Crouzon syndrome. Frontozygomatic Suture. For example, in dentofacial orthopedics, mechanical forces are commonly applied to cranial bones for growth modification [11-14]. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists. Abad and coworkers  suggested that resting zone cartilage makes important contributions to endochondral bone formation at the growth plate by providing stem-like cells to produce proliferative chondrocytes and producing growth plate-orienting factors (GPOF), which are morphogens that control the alignment of the proliferative clones into columns parallel to the long axis of the bone. B: Growth at the sphenoethmoidal synchondrosis produces primarily anteriorposterior growth C: Growth at the sphenoethmoidal synchondrosis continues to adulthood D: Growth at the sphenooccipital synchondrosis is limited after 13 years of age because of fusion In complete clefts of lip and palate, cranial base deviations in dimension and shape have been widely described. Increases in basicranial breadth and length also occur in sutures (e.g., the occipito-mastoid), and the endocranial fossae of the basicranium deepens through drift, during which bone is resorbed and deposited along the superior and inferior surfaces, respectively . The function of the hypertrophic cell layer is not only to synthesize matrix but also to cause growth by cell expansion/hypertrophy [30-32]. It therefore appears that the cranial base angle is not a pivotal factor in determining malocclusion. It may be that spheno-occipital synchondrosis is the primary site for premature closure of the lambdoid suture and related sutures in these children. Cranial base synchondroses, with their unique bipolar growth, are a fundamental part of craniofacial development. Although the overall development of cranial base synchondroses has received less attention than that of long-bone growth plates, many genes have been identified that have proven to be fundamental in the development of the craniofacial complex . spheno-occipital synchondrosis because of its late ossification and important contribution to post-natal cranial base growth [1, 15-18]. synchondrosis (SOS) and the jaw relationship. Some abnormalities are craniosynostoses, or premature bony fusions of skull sutures, which eventually influence the life quality of affected children and their families . It has been argued that these observations are better explained by posterior drift of the sella rather than by inequalities of synchondrosal growth. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals. The foramina spinosa are set in the posteroinferior spines of the sphenoid, very close to the temporal bones. In Klinefelter syndrome and Williams syndrome, the major craniofacial changes are located in the cranial base [104, 105]. It was found that females had a higher SOS closure rate (38.60%) per year than males at the age of 10 years. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study. Age estimation of subjects by using the closure stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis is widely variable among studies, which may be attributed to the different methodological approaches used, i.e. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community. The chondrocranium is essentially a structural template within and around which the bony cranial base is constructed . Three synchondroses are present along the midline of the cranial base: the spheno-ethmoidal synchondrosis between the sphenoid and ethmoidal bones, the intersphenoid synchondrosis between two parts of the sphenoid bone and the spheno-occipital synchondrosis between the sphenoid and basioccipital bones. Enlow  proposed that cranial base flexion during human prenatal and postnatal ontogeny is due to increased brain growth, relative to slower growth of the midline basicranium. It allows only slight movement between bones compared with the synovial joint, which has a much greater range of movement. Craniosynostosis syndromes, more than 150 of which have been identified, affect 1:25,000 to 1:100,000 infants. Any cartilage remaining between the bones in the form of synchondroses acts as a growth center in a similar way to the epiphyseal plates of the long bones. The interval between eruption of the lambdoid suture and related sutures in these children ]... 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